Been out of the Android world for a year or so, but LOVE my new Galaxy S III. I use Outlook 2010 on a home PC (no Exchange server) as my 'master' copy for calendar & contacts.
I got the calendar to sync to the phone by using Google Calendar sync to link Outlook to the Gmail calendar and then the phone syncs to Gmail. Seems to work well. My problem is contacts. I have a lot of them and need a way to sync them up on the phone.
I use a USB cable & iTunes to sync my iPad & it works great. Is there a wireless or wired option for the Galaxy? A cable solution would work fine!
There are a number of 3rd party solutions to move Contacts from Outlook to a Galaxy phone. What you need to decide is whether to move everything via Google, or whether to go direct. If you go through Google, you are limited to Contacts and Calendar only. Other solutions can bring in Tasks, Notes and Journal sync.
CompanionLink ($14.95) can handle moving stuff to Google, or alternately doing it directly with USB or through CompanionLink's Cloud server.