If you have suspended service, (I hope you have), then you can not track. There are apps you can place on the phone PRIOR to having the phone stolen that allows you to easily track the phone from your PC.
There is an app called PlanB that you can get via your PC at Google Play AFTER the phone is stolen that you will supposedly be able to track the phone and allow you to lock it and see where it is.
VZW is not in the phone tracking business. If they started tracking phones that would be all they would do and then there would be privacy concerns....
An example, Your significant other is on your account and you say the phone is stolen so you want VZW to track it, they do, but all you wanted to know if they are playing around. You can bet the other party would be suing VZW for all they could.
Also ATT phones will not work on VZW's network. ATT uses a different technology, GSM vs CDMA
... Next I need to know how to replace my phone. I've only had the phone two months, I got it in early April. That's less than a month by my calculations...but that doesn't change my answer or budone's either. I don't have insurance is so I guess what I need to know is, without insurance is there a way to get a replacement or a different phone at a reduced rate when I'm not currently eligible for an upgrade? Will I have to purchase a new phone at full retail price?
Budone answered the rest of your questions... without insurance, and no upgrade eligible, you are in a tough spot. Your options are:
1. Buy a new phone from Verizon at full retail
2. Buy a CPO (Certified Pre-Owned) for a bit less, but still expensive without the upgrade discount
3. Buy one off eBay, craigslist, or a friend
4. Find a really really good friend who will give you one of their old Verizon phones to use
Another option might be if you are on a family plan and there is another line eligible for upgrade and the person on that line is willing to let you use their upgrade and they keep their phone for another 2 years.