Most are available by swiping left from the start menu. You will see a list of all installed apps. Press and hold on the app that you want to pin to the start menu and options will come up. Click on "Pin to Start Menu" and you should be all set.
Yeah. Like they are saying. Go from the Start screen with the tiles. Swipe left to get into the app list. Click on the magnifying glass. Type phone. Then don't click phone but click and hold until a menu pulls down with the option "Pin to Start" and click that. When it is pinned just long press it on the home screen and you can move it around and re-size it.